|Foundation date||February 15, 2005 (2005-02-15)|
|Headquarters||901 Cherry Avenue, San Bruno, California, United States|
|Area served||Worldwide (except blocked countries)|
|Key people||Susan Wojcicki (CEO)|
Chad Hurley (Adviser)
Video hosting service
|Slogan(s)||Broadcast Yourself (2005–2012)|
(see list of localized domain names)
|Alexa rank||2 (July 2017[update])|
|Registration||Optional (not required to watch most videos; required for certain tasks such as uploading videos, viewing flagged (18+) videos, creating playlists and posting comments)|
|Launched||February 14, 2005; 13 years ago (2005-02-14)|
YouTube is a free video sharing website that lets people upload, view, and share videos. Videos can be rated with a like or dislike, most videos can be commented on if logged in to an account, and the number of times a video has been watched (known as "views") is put on the site. Users who have accounts can also subscribe to channels. At the moment, Google (a search engine company) owns and operates YouTube. Many different types of videos can be put onto the website, such as educational content, animations, and funny stuff. YouTube was started on February 15, 2005 by three former workers of PayPal.
Features[change | change source]
Videos[change | change source]
YouTube needed the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to play videos in the past. However, in January 2010, YouTube tried using the built-in features of web browsers so people would not need to use Adobe Flash player to watch videos.
All YouTube users can upload 15-minute long videos. Users who have used the site for enough time and follow the rules can upload videos that are 12 hours long. A user needs to verify the account to do this, however. Everyone could upload long videos when YouTube started, but in March 2006 a ten-minute video limit was put in. The limit was changed to 15 minutes in July 2010. Most video formats can be uploaded to YouTube, and videos can also be uploaded from mobile phones.
Banning[change | change source]
YouTube is blocked in many schools because it allows children to search for videos online that could distract them from their lessons, much like how other social networking sites and game sites are blocked for the same purpose. But at a higher level than schools (and in workplaces), even some governments have blocked YouTube access to their country's public, but their reasons can vary.[source?]
Iran[change | change source]
On December 3, 2006, the government of Iran blocked YouTube and several other sites to stop films and music from other countries from being seen.
Turkey[change | change source]
Turkey blocked YouTube on March 6 2007 for letting videos that were mean or discriminating to Turks and Atatürk, who is the founder of modern Turkey, to be shown, because of a "virtual war" between Greeks, Armenians, Kurds and Turks on YouTube, with people from each side posting videos to hurt the other. The video that caused the banning said that Turks and Atatürk were 'gay'. The video was first mentioned on Turkish CNN and the Istanbul public prosecutor sued YouTube for being mean to Turkishness. The court suspended access to YouTube while waiting for the removal of the video. The ban was criticized a lot. YouTube lawyers sent proof of removal to court and users could access the website again on March 9 2007.
Thailand[change | change source]
During the week of March 8, YouTube was blocked in Thailand. Many bloggers (people who have a "diary" online) believed the reason YouTube was blocked was because of a video of the former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra's speech on CNN. However, the government did not confirm or give reasons for the ban. YouTube was unblocked on March 10.
On the night of April 3, YouTube was again blocked in Thailand. The government said it was because of a video on the site that it said was "insulting" to King Bhumibol Adulyadej. The Ministry of Information and Communication Technology claimed that it would unblock YouTube in a few days, after websites with references to this video are blocked instead of the entire website. Communications Minister Sitthichai Pookaiyaudom said, "When they decide to withdraw the clip, we will withdraw the ban." Soon after this incident the internet technology blog Mashable was banned from Thailand over the reporting of the YouTube clips in question.
Brazilian model lawsuit and banning that came after[change | change source]
YouTube is being sued by Brazilian model and MTV VJ Daniela Cicarelli (better known as Ronaldo's ex-fiancée) because she says that the site is making available a video footage made by a paparazzi (or celebrity photographer), in which she and her boyfriend are having sex on a Spanish beach. The lawsuit says that YouTube has to be blocked in Brazil until all copies of the video are removed. On Saturday, January 6, 2007, a legal injunction ("command") ordered that filters be put in place to prevent users in Brazil from going to the website.
The effectiveness of the measure has been questioned, since the video is not available only on YouTube, but rather has become an Internet phenomenon. On Tuesday, January 9, 2007, the same court overturned their earlier decision, ordering the filters to be taken down, even though the footage was still forbidden, but without technical support for its blockage.
Morocco[change | change source]
On May 25, 2007 the state-owned company Maroc Telecom blocked all access to YouTube. There were no reasons given why YouTube was blocked. But the guesses are that it might have something to do with some pro-separatist group Polisario clips (Polisario is the Western Sahara independence movement) or because of some videos that criticized King Mohammed VI. This block did not concern the other two private internet-providers, Wana and Meditel. YouTube became accessible again on May 30th, 2007 after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was only a "technical glitch".
Australia[change | change source]
In Australia, some schools, including all secondary schools in Victoria, have YouTube blocked from student access, after fights have been posted on YouTube.
China[change | change source]
Currently in China the government has blocked YouTube. For several years it has been unblocked but since the past five years it has been blocked.
Terms of service[change | change source]
According the site's terms of service, users may upload videos only if they have the permission of the copyright holder and of the people in the video. Pornography, defamation, harassment, commercials and videos that encourage criminal conduct may not be uploaded. The uploader gives YouTube permission to give out and change the uploaded video for any purpose, and they do not have permission anymore when the uploader deletes the video from the site. Users may view videos on the site but are not allowed to save them on their computers.
Localization[change | change source]
On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system. The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 90 countries, and a worldwide version.
|United States (and worldwide launch)||English||San Bruno||02005-02-15February 152005|
|Brazil||Portuguese||São Paulo||02007-06-19June 192007|
|France||French, and Basque||Paris||02007-06-19June 192007|
|Spain||Spanish, Galician, Catalan, and Basque||Madrid||02007-06-19June 192007|
|United Kingdom||English||London||02007-06-19June 192007|
|Mexico||Spanish||Mexico City||02007-10-11October 112007|
|Hong Kong||Chinese, and English||Hong Kong||02007-10-17October 172007|
|New Zealand||English||Auckland||02007-10-22October 222007|
|Canada||English, and French||Toronto||02007-11-06November 62007|
|South Korea||Korean||Seoul||02008-01-23January 232008|
|India||Hindi, Bengali, English, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu||Mumbai||02008-05-07May 72008|
|Israel||Hebrew, Arabic, and English||Tel Aviv||02008-09-16September 162008|
|Czech Republic||Czech||Prague||02008-10-09October 92008|
|South Africa||Afrikaans, Zulu, and English||Johannesburg||02010-05-17May 172010|
|Argentina||Spanish||Buenos Aires||02010-09-08September 82010|
|Algeria||Arabic, and French||Algiers||02011-03-09March 92011|
|Morocco||Arabic, and French||Rabat||02011-03-09March 92011|
|Saudi Arabia||Arabic, and English||Riyadh||02011-03-09March 92011|
|Tunisia||Arabic, and French||Tunis||02011-03-09March 92011|
|Kenya||Swahili, and English||Nairobi||02011-09-01September 12011|
|Philippines||Filipino, and English||Quezon City||02011-10-13October 132011|
|Singapore||Chinese, English, Malay, and Tamil||Singapore City||02011-10-20October 202011|
|Belgium||French, Dutch, and German||Antwerp||02011-11-11November 112011|
|Uganda||English, and Swahili||Kampala||02011-12-02December 22011|
|Malaysia||Malay, and English||Kuala Lumpur||02012-03-22March 222012|
|United Arab Emirates||Arabic, and English||Dubai||02012-03-29March 292012|
|Indonesia||Indonesian, and English||Jakarta||02012-05-17May 172012|
|Senegal||French, and English||Dakar||02012-07-04July 42012|
|Ukraine||Ukrainian, and Russian||Kiev||02012-12-01December 12012|
|Switzerland||German, French, and Italian||Zurich||02013-03-29March 292013|
|Kuwait||Arabic||Kuwait City||02013-08-16August 162013|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian||Sarajevo||02014-03-17March 172014|
|Macedonia||Macedonian, Albanian, Serbian, and Turkish||Skopje||02014-03-17March 172014|
|Montenegro||Serbian, and Croatian||Podgorica||02014-03-17March 172014|
|Lebanon||Arabic, and French||Beirut||02014-05-01May 12014|
Website monetization is the process of converting existing traffic being sent to a particular website into revenue. The most popular ways of monetizing a website are by implementing pay per click (PPC) and cost per impression (CPI/CPM) advertising. Various ad networks facilitate a webmaster in placing advertisements on pages of the website to benefit from the traffic the site is experiencing.
The two most important metrics that matter to a web publisher looking to monetize their site is "Fill Rate", or the % of inventory where ads can be shown by a partner advertising network, and eCPM, which is the effective cost per thousand impression dollar amount that is paid out to the publisher for showing ads to their audience.
Pay per click advertising
Main article: Pay per click
Pay per click (also called Cost per click) is a marketing strategy put in place by search engines and various advertising networks, where an advert, usually targeted by keywords or general topic, is placed on a relevant website. The advertiser then pays for every click that is made on the advert.
Cost per impression advertising
Main article: Cost per impression
Cost per impression (also called cost per mille) is a marketing strategy put in place by various advertising networks, where an advert is placed on a relevant website, usually targeted to the content sector of that site. The advertiser then pays for every time the advert is displayed to a user.
Main article: Web banner
Banner advertising consists of placing a graphical banner advertisement on a webpage. The role of this banner is to catch the eye of incoming traffic to the page, enticing readers to click the advertisement. This form of monetization is implemented by both affiliate programs and advertising networks. Banners originally just referred to advertisements of 468 x 60 pixels, but the term is now widely used to refer to all sizes of display advertising on the internet.
Banner ad types
Banner ads come in various shapes and sizes and are sized according to pixel dimensions. Typical banner sizes include:
- Leaderboard 728 x 90
- Banner 468 x 60
- Skyscraper 120 x 600
- Top cube, NTV (nex to video), IM (instand message) are widely used in 300x250 format
- Wide Skyscraper 160 x 600
Various Banner Ad Networks : BuySellAds.com, Blogads "MediaNet",
Main article: Affiliate marketing
Affiliate programs are another popular way of monetizing existing website traffic. By joining a business' affiliate program, any searches for products within that business' catalog may earn affiliates a commission on each sale that was originally referred through their website.
Main article: Data monetization
Websites also generate valuable user data that can be monetized through various methods. Data generated by websites about their users can range from being demographics to in-market data (i.e. in-market for a car). This data can be sold through behavioral data exchanges and used by advertisers to target their online media campaigns. Websites can also generate revenue from their newsletter and on-site registrations programs by helping to bring in offline data associated with users during this process. Another method of monetizing data is through the use of a surveywall instead of a paywall, asking users to take a short survey, rather than paying the website directly. The website is then paid by the surveywall operator (such as Survata).
Paid membership programs
Paid membership or 'continuity' programs are another way to monetize existing traffic. Examples of media membership sites are the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times. In the gaming world, Blizzard's World of Warcraft has millions of members. But there are many other kinds of member sites that cover niche markets. Often people join to get access to content and expertise, or for community, such as discussion or bulletin boards. The term "continuity" is used because the goal is to develop income continuity. Instead of making a one-time sale of a product or service, the membership site brings new, repeated income every month.
Besides news, other kinds of membership site include: health, fitness, marketing, copy writing, social media expertise, paper products, dating, paper crafting, scrap booking, coaching, writing and many other applications.
Experts in the membership site field say that "people come for content and stay for community." The challenge of a member site is to retain paying members. Some sites, like the New York Times, offers some content free and then charges a fee for more in-depth access, or access to special kinds of content. Some sites offer downloads of audio or video content, free graphics, free software that is only available to members. Many sites also offer webinars to members. The webinars are often recorded as video, audio and also transcribed, creating more special content that is behind the pay wall.
Fees for membership vary widely. They can be billed monthly, annually, or even lifetime memberships. The digital access to the website is sometimes sold as part of a combination package that also includes physical product. For example, the Wall Street Journal offers a combination paper subscription, which is delivered to the subscriber's door, combined with access to the website and the smartphone app versions of the paper for about $140. Another site that sells membership to large corporations in the mobile phone industry, charges up to $12,000.00 a year for membership, which gives tech employees the right to pay to attend conferences on different aspects of the technology of cellular phones, and to access, on the website, recordings of past meetings.
Business sites may offer a special information package, perhaps CDs or DVDs shipped to the new member as part of a package that includes membership.
Affiliate marketing is sometimes used to build membership in membership sites. Some sites continue to pay a percentage to the referring affiliate as long as the member continues paying monthly fees. Others pay a larger up-front fee.
The page that marketers use a marketing or social media "funnel" to bring potential new paying members to is called a "squeeze" page.
There is an annual Continuity Summit meeting organized by Ryan Lee that brings together experts in member sites.
Websites can also ask visitors to donate money to them. This may be done using a pre-determined amount or by letting visitors enter their own donation amount.